**What is the motion of torsional pendulum?** Complete answer: The motion of a torsional pendulum is **periodic, oscillatory and angular simple harmonic**. Torsional Pendulum motion is defined as the motion of a rigid body supported by a massless inextensible string. K is the torsion constant.

## What is the use of torsional pendulum?

Similar to the simple pendulum, so long as the angular displacement is small (which means the motion is SHM) the period is independent of the displacement. Torsional pendulums are also used as **a time keeping devices** , as in for example, the mechanical wristwatch .

## Why is the motion of a pendulum said to be simple harmonic?

The motion of a simple pendulum is very close to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). SHM **results whenever a restoring force is proportional to the displacement**, a relationship often known as Hooke’s Law when applied to springs. Where F is the restoring force, k is the spring constant, and x is the displacement.

## What is G in torsion?

G is **the shear modulus**, also called the modulus of rigidity, and is usually given in gigapascals (GPa), lbf/in^{2} (psi), or lbf/ft^{2} or in ISO units N/mm^{2}. The product J_{T}G is called the torsional rigidity w_{T}.

## What are the cause of damping?

Viscous damping is caused by **such energy losses as occur in liquid lubrication between moving parts** or in a fluid forced through a small opening by a piston, as in automobile shock absorbers. The viscous-damping force is directly proportional to the relative velocity between the two ends of the damping device.

## What is called torsion?

1 : **the twisting or wrenching of a body by the exertion of forces tending to turn one end or part about a longitudinal axis** while the other is held fast or turned in the opposite direction also : the state of being twisted. 2 : the twisting of a bodily organ or part on its own axis.

## Why isn’t a pendulum SHM?

Any pendulum undergoes simple harmonic motion when the amplitude of oscillation is small. … The pendulum still oscillates, but the motion is no longer simple harmonic motion because **the angular acceleration is not proportional to the negative of the angular displacement**.

## What is the relationship between pendulum length and period?

The period of a pendulum does not depend on the mass of the ball, but only on the length of the string. **Two pendula with different masses but the same length will have the same period**. Two pendula with different lengths will different periods; the pendulum with the longer string will have the longer period.

## How does angle affect pendulum period?

The **greater the amplitude, or angle, the farther the pendulum falls**; and therefore, the longer the period.) … Since the force of gravity is less on the Moon, the pendulum would swing slower at the same length and angle and its frequency would be less.)

## What is torsional constant formula?

The torsion constant K of a rod is defined by the equation. **θ** **τ** **= K** . in which a torque τ causes one end of a rod to rotate through an angle θ, measured in radians, while the other end of the rod is fixed.

## What is an example of torsion?

Twisting **a simple piece of blackboard chalk between ones fingers until it snaps** is an example of a torsional force in action. A common example of torsion in engineering is when a transmission drive shaft (such as in an automobile) receives a turning force from its power source (the engine).

## What is damping ratio formula?

Critical damping coefficient = 2 x the square root of (k x m) = 2 x the square root of (100 x 10) = 63.2 Ns/m. Since the actual damping coefficient is 1 Ns/m, the damping ratio = **(1/63.2)**, which is much less than 1. So the system is underdamped and will oscillate back and forth before coming to rest.

## How do you calculate damping force?

Effects of Viscous Damping

A 1-DOF system with viscous damping. where ω d = 1 − ξ 2 ω n is called the damped natural frequency, and A and B are determined by the initial conditions. This motion, which is oscillatory with decaying amplitude, is called underdamped vibration.

## What is the damping effect?

Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that **has the effect of reducing or preventing its oscillation**. In physical systems, damping is produced by processes that dissipate the energy stored in the oscillation. … Not to be confused with friction, which is a dissipative force acting on a system.

## What is torsion structure?

Torsion is **the state of strain in a material that has been twisted by an applied torque**. It will occur whenever a structural element is subject to a twisting force. … Torsion develops shear stresses and is equivalent to tension and compression at right angles.

## What is difference between torque and torsion?

The main difference between torque and torsion is that **torque describes** something that is capable of producing an angular acceleration, whereas torsion describes the twist formed in a body due to a torque.

## What is angle of twist?

Angle of twist: For a shaft under torsional loading, **the angle through which fixed end of a shaft rotates with respect to the free end** is called the angle of twist. … Elastic-plastic torsion: Suppose a shaft is made of ductile material and is subjected to torsional loading.

## What is one oscillation of a pendulum?

One oscillation is completed by a pendulum when it starts from the extreme position A and moves to the other extreme position B and then returns to A. The time to complete one oscillation is called **the time period**. The time period of oscillation remains constant.

## What is the restoring force of a pendulum?

As for the simple pendulum, the restoring force of the physical pendulum is **the force of gravity**. With the simple pendulum, the force of gravity acts on the center of the pendulum bob. In the case of the physical pendulum, the force of gravity acts on the center of mass (CM) of an object.

## What forces keep the simple pendulum in SHM?

The **component of weight due to gravitational force (i.e., mgsinθ)** , keeps the simple pendulum in simple harmonic motion, i.e., also called restoring force.

## What is the formula of time period of pendulum?

The formula for the period T of a pendulum is **T = 2π Square root of√ ^{L}/_{g}**, where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

## What are the two factors that affect the period of a pendulum?

**The mass and angle** are the only factors that affect the period of a pendulum.

## Why does amplitude not affect the period of a pendulum?

Increasing the amplitude means that there is a larger distance to travel, but the restoring force also increases, which proportionally increases the acceleration. This means **the mass can travel a greater distance at a greater speed**. These attributes cancel each other, so amplitude has no effect on period.

## Does angle matter in a pendulum?

Finally, the angle that the pendulum swings through (a big swing or a small swing) **does not affect the period** of the pendulum because pendulums swinging through a larger angle accelerate more than pendulums swinging through a small angle.

## What is the period formula?

each complete oscillation, called the period, is constant. The formula for the period T of a pendulum is **T = 2π Square root of√ ^{L}/_{g}**, where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

## Why does the mass of a pendulum not affect the period?

The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum does not depend on the mass of the bob. … Since **the mass factors into both the cause of changing motion and the resistance to changing motion**, it cancels out. For a mass-spring system, the mass still affects the inertia, but it does not cause the force.

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