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Where is Enterobacter found?

Where is Enterobacter found? Enterobacter can be found on human skin, plants, soil, water, sewage, intestinal tracts of animals, including humans, dairy products; and clinical specimens such as feces, urine, blood, sputum, and wound exudates.

Is Enterobacter citrate positive or negative?

Positive Reaction: Growth with color change from green to intense blue along the slant. Examples: Salmonella, Edwardsiella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Providencia, etc. Negative Reaction: No growth and No color change; Slant remains green.

How is Enterobacter treated?

Treatment / Management

Possible treatments include carbapenems, beta-lactams, beta-lactamase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. First and second-generation cephalosporins are generally not effective against Enterobacter infections.

How is Enterobacter transmitted?

How is Enterobacter cloacae transmitted? Immunocompromised Patients are at risk if they come into direct or indirect contact with contaminated persons or objects. The pathogens can also be transmitted via contaminated infusion solutions or blood products.

How common is Enterobacter?

Enterobacter species were the second-most-common gram-negative organism behind Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, both bacteria were reported to each represent 4.7% of bloodstream infections in ICU settings. Enterobacter species represent 3.1% of bloodstream infections in non-ICU wards.

What does a negative citrate test indicate?

If the medium turns blue, the organism is citrate positive. If there is no color change, the organism is citrate negative. Some citrate negative organisms may grow weakly on the surface of the slant, but they will not produce a color change.

What bacteria is citrate negative?

Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis are examples of citrate positive organisms. Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae are citrate negative.

What does a negative Voges Proskauer test mean?

Negative Reaction: A lack of a pink-red color. Examples: Streptococcus mitis, Citrobacter sp., Shigella, Yersinia, Edwardsiella, Salmonella, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus etc. A copper color should be considered negative. A rust color is a weak positive reaction.

Is Enterobacter the same as E coli?

Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria of a large family that includes Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia pestis.

How can you prevent Enterobacter infection?


Hand washing or use of alcohol or other disinfecting hand gels by health care workers between contacts with patients prevents transmission of these and other nosocomial bacteria. This is particularly true in ICUs.

What antibiotics treat Enterobacter?

The antimicrobials most commonly indicated in Enterobacter infections include carbapenems, fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and TMP-SMZ. Carbapenems continue to have the best activity against E cloacae, E aerogenes, and other Enterobacter species.

What are the signs and symptoms of Enterobacter cloacae?

Patients with respiratory Enterobacter cloacae suffer from shortness of breath, yellow sputum (phlegm), fevers and heavy coughing. Interestingly, pneumonia caused by this bacterium often makes patients feel less ill than pneumonia caused by other bacteria, but has a surprisingly high mortality rate.

What does the citrate test tell you?

The citrate test detects the ability of an organism to use citrate as the sole source of carbon and energy.

Do we use metabolic testing to identify bacteria today?

Each species of bacteria has specific metabolic needs and relies on different enzymes to fuel those unique needs. The presence of catalase, gelatinase, oxidase, urease, for example, can be used to identify the species of bacteria. Biochemical reactions used in biochemical tests depend on the presence of such bacteria.

How do you test for lactose fermentation?

How is lactose fermentation determined? If lactose is fermented to produce acid end products, the pH of the medium will drop. A pH indicator in the medium changes color to indicate acid production.

What are the three main approaches to the identification of unknown bacteria?

What three main approaches can be used by microbiologists to identify microorganisms? –Phenotypic- observing bacterial morphology and staining properties as well as biochemical testing. You just studied 45 terms!

What color will indicate a positive urease test?

Urease production is indicated by a bright pink (fuchsia) color on the slant that may extend into the butt. Note that any degree of pink is considered a positive reaction.

What are two methods you can use to help identify the bacteria you have isolated?

There are two main ways to isolate organisms.

  • Streaking for isolation on an agar plate.
  • The pour plate method.

What type of metabolism is detected with the Voges-Proskauer test?

Today, Barritt’s modification of the Voges-Proskauer test is the standard procedure used to detect the presence of acetoin as a metabolic intermediate in the fermentation of glucose via the butanediol pathway.

Which reagent is used to check whether Mr test is positive or negative?

When methyl red is added to MR-VP broth that has been inoculated with Escherichia coli , it stays red. This is a positive result for the MR test. When methyl red is added to MR-VP broth that has been inoculated with Enterobacter cloacae , it turns yellow. This is a negative MR result.

What indicates a positive Voges-Proskauer test?

The test is performed by adding alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide to the Voges-Proskauer broth which has been inoculated with bacteria. A cherry red color indicates a positive result, while a yellow-brown color indicates a negative result. The test depends on the digestion of glucose to acetylmethylcarbinol.

What are 3 general characteristics of the Enterobacteriaceae?

Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae have the following characteristics: They are gram-negative rods, either motile with peritrichous flagella or nonmotile; grow on peptone or meat extract media without the addition of sodium chloride or other supplements; grow well on MacConkey agar; grow aerobically and

Is vibrio a member of Enterobacteriaceae?

As with closely related Gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrios are facultatively anaerobic and capable of mixed acid fermentation. Vibrio spp. are predominantly oxidase positive, in contrast to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

What causes Enterobacter UTI?

Pyelonephritis with or without bacteremia, prostatitis, cystitis, and asymptomatic bacteriuria can be caused by Enterobacter species, as with Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacilli. Most Enterobacter UTIs are nosocomial and are associated with indwelling urinary catheters and/or prior antibiotic therapy.

Is CRE worse than MRSA?

Considered more dangerous than MRSA, Dr. Frieden called CRE a “Nightmare Bacteria” because of its high mortality rate, it’s resistance to nearly all antibiotics, and its ability to spread its drug resistance to other bacteria.

Is Enterobacteriaceae contagious?

Bacteria known as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are resistant to some powerful antibiotics. CRE can spread from person to person through contact with infected people or people who carry the bacteria without it causing infection within themselves.



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