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Which sulfonamide is used topically?

Which sulfonamide is used topically? Sulfonamides available for topical use include silver sulfadiazine and mafenide burn cream, sulfanilamide vaginal cream and suppositories, and sulfacetamide ophthalmic.

What are short acting barbiturates?

« Ultra short-acting » barbiturates include Methohexital (Brevital), Thiamylal (Surital), and Thiopental (Pentothal). « Short-acting » and « intermediate-acting » barbiturates include Pentobarbital (Nembutal) and Secobarbital (Amytal). « Long-acting » barbiturates include Phenobarbital (Luminal) and Mephobarbital (Mebaral).

How do sulfonamides affect bacteria?

The sulfa drugs such as sulfonamides inhibit a critical enzyme–dihydropteroate synthase–in this process. Once the process is stopped, the bacteria can no longer grow. Another kind of antibiotic–tetracycline–also inhibits bacterial growth by stopping protein synthesis.

Are sulfonamides Antimetabolite antibacterial agents?

Sulfonamides are synthetic antibacterial compounds and are generally wide-spectrum drugs active against a range of bacterial species, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative.

Are sulfonamides Gram-positive or negative?

Sulfonamides are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Some protozoa, such as coccidians, Toxoplasma species and plasmodia, are generally sensitive. Chlamydia, Nocardia and Actinomyces species are also sensitive.

Which is ultra short acting drug?

The ultra-short acting barbiturates can produce anesthesia within minutes after intravenous administration. Currently thiopental (Pentothal), thiamylal (Surital), and methohexital (Brevital) are used medically.

Are barbiturates teratogenic?

With regard to teratogenicity the barbiturates used as anticonvulsants have been most frequently studied and malformations associated with anticonvulsant drug use (such as phenobarbital or the nonbarbiturate hydantoin phenytoin) during pregnancy are termed hydantoin-barbiturate embryopathy.

What is the strongest barbiturate?

List of Barbiturates Strongest to Weakest

  • Pentothal (thiopental sodium)
  • Brevital (methohexital)
  • Surital (thiamylal)

How do sulfonamides destroy bacteria?

Sulfa drugs are bacteriostatic; i.e., they inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria but do not kill them. They act by interfering with the synthesis of folic acid (folate), a member of the vitamin B complex present in all living cells.

Are sulfonamides acidic or basic?

Cancerostatic aromatic sulfonamides 16-19 are generally weak acids with the acidity comparable or slightly lower than the lead sulfanilamide.

What is the action of sulfonamides?

Mechanism of Action

Sulfonamides competitively inhibit the incorporation of PABA into folic acid, thereby preventing the synthesis of folic acid. Trimethoprim binds reversibly to and inhibits dihyrofolate reductase, an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, decreasing folic acid synthesis.

Which drugs are sulphonamides?

Examples of sulfonamides includes sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole (brand name: Thiosulfil Forte), sulfamethoxazole (Gantanol), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), and various high-strength combinations of three sulfonamides. Sulfa drugs kill bacteria and fungi by interfering with cell metabolism.

What are the indications of sulfonamides?

Sulfonamides, or « sulfa drugs, » are a group of medicines used to treat bacterial infections. They may be prescribed to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs), bronchitis, eye infections, bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, ear infections, severe burns, traveler’s diarrhea, and other conditions.

Why do sulfonamides cause Crystalluria?

The sulfa drugs are acetylated, primarily in the liver. The product is devoid of antimicrobial activity but retains the toxic potential to precipitate at neutral or acidic pH. This causes crystalluria and, therefore, potential damage to the kidney.

Are sulfonamides effective against gram-positive?

Sulfonamides are a class of antibiotics that are effective against many gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Some sulfonamides are applied directly to the skin (topically) to treat burns and skin, vaginal, and eye infections.

Why are sulfonamides bad?

Sulfonamides have the potential to cause a variety of untoward reactions, including urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions. When used in large doses, they may cause a strong allergic reaction.

What are examples of barbiturates?

Examples of Barbiturates

  • Seconal (secobarbital)
  • Seconal Sodium (secobarbital)
  • Butisol Sodium (butabarbital)
  • Medaral (mephobarbital)
  • Nembutal Sodium (pentobarbital)
  • Luminal (phenobarbital)
  • Amytal Sodium (amobarbital)
  • Nembutal (pentobarbital)

Which drugs are barbiturates?

Barbiturates are available under the following different brand names: amobarbital (Amytal), secobarbital (Seconal), butabarbital (Butisol), pentobarbital (Nembutal), belladonna and phenobarbital (Donnatal), butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine (Esgic, Fioricet), and butalbital/aspirin/caffeine (Fiorinal Ascomp, Fortabs).

Where do barbiturates bind?

Barbiturates bind to the GABAA receptor at multiple homologous transmembrane pockets located at subunit interfaces, which are binding sites distinct from GABA itself and also distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. Like benzodiazepines, barbiturates potentiate the effect of GABA at this receptor.

Are barbiturates inhibitors?

Mechanism of action. Barbiturates act as positive allosteric modulators and, at higher doses, as agonists of GABAA receptors. GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).

Are barbiturates used as analgesic?

It is usually accepted that the barbiturates do not have analgesic prop- erties, but the writer has often gained the impression, clinically, that sub-anasthetic doses of thiopentone given intravenously make a pa- tient react more vigorously to a painful stimulus.

Are barbiturates like Xanax?

Common benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), temazepam (Restoril), and clonazepam (Klonopin). Common barbiturates include secobarbital (Seconal); butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine (Fiorinal); thiopental (Pentothal); and pentobarbital (Nembutal).

Why are barbiturates not used anymore?

Barbiturate use and abuse has declined dramatically since the 1970s, mainly because a safer group of sedative-hypnotics called benzodiazepines is being prescribed. Benzodiazepine use has largely replaced barbiturates in the medical profession, with the exception of a few specific indications.

What drugs fall under barbiturates?

Barbiturates are available under the following different brand names: amobarbital (Amytal), secobarbital (Seconal), butabarbital (Butisol), pentobarbital (Nembutal), belladonna and phenobarbital (Donnatal), butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine (Esgic, Fioricet), and butalbital/aspirin/caffeine (Fiorinal Ascomp, Fortabs).



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